Amyloid plaques that occur in Alzheimer’s are created by misfolded proteins that clump together and damage nerve cells. German scientists have discovered a way to remove these plaques. The scientists took aged microglia cells (scavenger cells of the brain’s immune system) and co-cultured them with microglia tissue from younger mouse brains. Within a few days, the older amyloid plaques began to resume cell division and eventually cleared the brain of plaque. The transformation is linked to a protein called “granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor” (GM-CSF) that the young microglia cells were secreting.