Calorie restriction is believed by many to protect us against disease and extend our longevity. Can it also help us keep our brains young? Mitochondria are organelles that keep cells full of energy and regulate cellular metabolism. Calcium participates in the process of communication between neurons. Now scientists at the Center for Research on Redox Processes in Biomedicine (Redoxoma) have performed a mouse study in which experiments reveal that a 40% reduction in dietary caloric intake increases mitochondrial calcium retention in situations where intracellular calcium levels are pathologically high. Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders can cause an excessive influx of calcium ions into brain cells due to overactivation of neuronal glutamate receptors. This condition, known as excitotoxicity, can damage and even kill neurons. If this same process is carried out in the human brain, calorie restriction might help us avoid the death of neurons that is associated with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy and stroke, among other neurodegenerative conditions.