A buildup of fluid inside the skull that increases pressure on the brain is called hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus can enlarge and deform the shape of the skull. In infants, whose head bones are not yet fused, the increased pressure can prevent the brain from developing and lead to cognitive impairment or death. The standard procedure to treat hydrocephalus has been surgical implantation of a shunt. In a recent study, researchers from Penn State University demonstrate that endoscopically reducing intracranial pressure and reducing fluid production are equally effective to implanting a shunt in treating infants with hydrocephalus caused by brain infections and that endoscopy may have fewer future complications. The researchers examined the results for 100 infants enrolled in the study and found no significant differences between the babies with shunts and those receiving endoscopic surgery for cognition, motor skills or language skills.