Seeing And Recognizing Objects Job Of V2 Brain Neurons.

In AI-Artificial Intelligence, Brain Science, Brain Technology, Robots, Senses and Perception by Brainy Days Ahead

Seeing and interpreting scenes involves more than a third of our brain. Now Salk Institute researchers have illuminated vision processing by analyzing how neurons in a critical part of the brain, called V2, respond to natural scenes. According to the researchers, our brains are largely composed of repeated cortical columns that analyze data and perform complex mathematical transfomations that scientists are not yet able to reproduce in a computer. The researchers incorporated the three organizing principles of visual processing into a model they named the Quadratic Convolutional model. First, V2 neurons combine edges that have similar orientations to facilitate seeing object boundaries. Second, if a neuron is activated by an edge, the orientation 90 degrees at the same location is suppressed, allowing our detection of various shapes. The team found that this cross-orientation was essential for accurate shape detection. Third, relevant patterns are repeated in space in ways that can help perceive textured surfaces of trees or water and boundaries between them. To develop their statistical model, the research team used publicly available data showing brain responses of primates watching movies of natural scenes (such as forest landscapes) from the Collaborative Research in Computational Neuroscience (CRCNS) database. An immediate application of the research may be improving object-recognition algorithms for self-driving cars and other robotic devices. According to one researcher, “…every time we add elements of computation that are found in the brain to computer-vision algorithms, their performance improves.”